Hyaluronic Acid is labeled with rhodamine, Ex/Em wavelength 552/575 nm. The rhodamine is 5/6-carboxy-tetramethyl- rhodamine, (5/6-TAMRA). Purity: >95% powder. Standard Degree of substitution: 1 mol % substitution and at least one dye molecule per polymer. HA labeled with dyes of different labeling ratios may be provided by custom synthesis. HA labeled with other rhodamine dyes such as Texas Red, Sulfo-rhodamine 101 may be offered by custom synthesis. Hyaluronic Acid synonyms: HA, hyaluronate, hyaluronan.
Name and Source: Hyaluronic acid (HA, Hyaluronan, Hyaluronate) is an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. CAS# 9004-61-9. Our HA products are produced via microbial fermentation. See Documents section for details.
Appearance: Lyophilized powder. The color depends on the color of the dye and the dye labeling ratio.
Solubility: Soluble in water and the solubility data varies with MW. Higher MW results in lowered solubility. Typically solubility ranges 5-50 mg/mL, that is, 0.5%-5%. Buffered solution at pH >6 enhances solubility due to deprotonation of carboxylic acid groups and formation of carboxylate salts. HA derivatives with hydrophobic groups will lower the solubility in water, and adding alcohol or DMSO to an alcohol-water or DMSO-water mixture can dramatically improve the solubility up to 200 mg/mL (20%).
Degree of Substitution (DoS): The standard DoS is 1% by default. Product variants with special DoS other than 1% is indicated in the product name and catalog number. For example, HA-635-2% means that the DoS is 2% for this particular product.
The substitution or labeling ratio is the percentage of HA disaccharide monomers that are functionalized with the functional groups. You may calculate the number of functional groups in each HA polymer chain by 1) dividing the MW of HA by the MW of one disaccharide monomer to derive the number of disaccharide monomers in HA; 2) then multiple the number of disaccharide monomers by the labeling ratio or DoS to get the number of functional groups in each HA polymer. See Documents section for details.
1. Sedimentation properties in density gradients correspond with levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, chromatin compaction and binding affinity to hyaluronic acid, Reproductive BioMedicine, 2017, Pages 298-311, Text.
2. A hyaluronic acid-binding contact lens with enhanced water retention, Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 2014, 38(2), pp 79-84.
3. Control Hydrogel-Hyaluronic Acid Aggregation toward the Design of Biomimetic Superlubricants, Biomacromolecules, 2014, 15 (7), pp 2760-2768.
4. Modular and Versatile Spatial Functionalization of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds through Fiber-Initiated Controlled Radical Polymerization. Adv. Funct. Mater., 2015, 25: 5748-5757. Text.
5. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on solid supported DPPC bilayers with hyaluronan in the presence of Ca2+ ions, Soft Matter, 2019,15, 7295-7304, Text.
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